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Now that Orchard is on .NET 4.5 we could think about adding some async APIs, first and foremost to make use of async I/O (that can dramatically increase throughput).
I see the following services that could be extended with async methods first: IStorageProvider, IAppDataFolder, IVirtualPathProvider. The underlying services these use have async methods so it would be just a matter of surfacing them. It would be a lot of work
to actually make use of theme in the Core though.